“A nation of writers, Italians, unfortunately little law. We must start from the young and especially from school. Young people are infected with the enthusiasm for reading, you have to invite them to the book, them curious, certainly not force them. Do you think the 41% books that come out not even sell a copy, and that's not good, why I am against the abuse of the computer, the memory is lost in excessive virtuality of digital technology”. But what feeds a writer? “The reality is the compass for a writer – said Dacia Maraini Villa Olmo, at the final award ceremony “City of Como” edition 2017 – “We often have to deal with an uncomfortable reality. painful, terrible, while we would like to test ourselves with something lighter. And it is also important to the imagination. Without imagination there is not even ethics, because it is the imagination that we create the image of precisely what is good for one person.” In the morning, Como the day of the writer saw her starring in a meeting with students of the grammar school “Alessandro Volta” Como. In Grand'Aula of Via Cesare Cantù school, Angelo Valtorta accompanied by the Dean and Professor Marina Doria, He responded to an extensive series of questions about writing, news and society. A job that of dialogue with the author and his work born of deep reflection in the classroom and will continue throughout the school year with further explanation.
A Mark who broke the ice by asking if you feel included in his work as a writer, the author of “The long life of Marianna Ucria” recalled that a real author, a classic, He is able to speak to more eras. “There are also significant authors but then disappear, because they have been able to speak only in their season. And then there are the great, that can give so many and such answers as knowing how to communicate with future periods – said Dacia Maraini – Think of Dante. I remember in my childhood some illiterate peasants who knew by heart many of the poet expressions, and if trasmetteraversare 700 years and still talk”.
Demand for Lorenzo, Another student of the Volta, concerned the richness of language, in the formative experience of Dacia Maraini. “Language is not what is being photographed in the vocabularies – He reminded the writer – It is a very complex phenomenon, ever-changing. Personally I do not accept the excessive use of technical jargon and industry, such as those of the bureaucracy, or sports, of medicine. Misusing them means to flatten the richness of the language that is the substantial amount of identity of a country. It can not be religion, or a flag. Rather it is the language to tell us who we are. And we should be a little Italian’ more proud of our language, which it is the fourth most spoken in the world, because it is the language of art, music, beauty. But we abuse of technicalities and even too many foreign words. think “mouse”, in common usage because of the spread of computers. Nobody wants to translate it literally “top”. But we abuse of the term “location”, to designate a place, a room. I find it harmful. A foreign word is inserted into the language of a country as does the shell with its pearl. That comes from a grain of sand, which it is joined to its interior. The mollusk slowly wraps in his saliva, to circumscribe, and this then solidifies creating precisely in a pearl, precious and unrepeatable. But if we get too much sand, the shell dies.” “For this I say – added Dacia Maraini – who is in our country should learn Italian, and the rules in force in Italy. There is nothing offensive, in this”. And Andrea, student who has drawn attention to the amount of conveyed words from English, especially in technical and scientific fields, Dacia Maraini advised her to become a promoter of a laboratory, at the classic Como, Italians to find synonyms for foreign words knocking on doors of our vocabulary. “Not doing enough – he said – to find words equivalent to the English, although English is the dominant language in the world. We should do as the French, that, for example, prefer “computer” a “computer”. Bending passively to this trend is a form of servility. Let's be more proud of our linguistic identity”
Con la risposta alla domanda della studentessa del classico Paola si è poi entrati nel vivo del dibattito sulla donna nella società contemporanea. “ll femminismo è morto – said Dacia Maraini – come del resto tutte le ideologie del novecento che hanno aggregato energie per cambiare la società moderna. Non è certo però venuta meno, anche se il femminismo storico ha esaurito la sua fase, il suo percorso, la lotta per difendere i diritti delle donne in una società maschilista, che vuole mercificare tutto, e dissacra la persona umana nella sua integrità, ad esempio imponendo meccanismi di seduzione attraverso l’esibizione del corpo femminile per vendere questo o quel prodotto. Le menti più deboli e meno allenate a pensare cadono nella rete, e vengono sedotte”. E a Vittoria, a student who asked how important traveling in the life and writing of Dacia Maraini, the writer said that even the places, how language, They are subjected to a perennial metamorphosis. “The Africa that I visited at length with Pasolini and Moravia no longer exists – he recalled – is now a continent choked with hunger, desertification, dall’Isis. A world where it's hard to stay. For this many try to escape”. And then there are many other places to visit, not only in Italy of the many medieval villages to be preserved. There is also an imaginary geography but no less powerful, that of literature, that enables travel through time and space: “Certain places like St. Petersburg Neva, some nineteenth century Dickensian o russo, I think of Gogol and Chekhov, I loved them as real places where I lived – He recalled the Maraini. The student “Time” Martina has brought the discussion of the social gains. “For me establish myself as a writer it has been difficult, I had to fight against many prejudices. The publishing market is very open, We know that women read more than men, however,, and out of many books written by women. Eppure nell’empireo, where they truly decide their future models, I think the university, for example,, women are still not listening, almost disappear from the control room. Personally I owe a lot to the success of Marianna Ucria, a book that came out in 28 countries, it was difficult then for critics take lightly lightly. Purtroppo oggi è più difficile essere scrittrici che scrittori. Ma parlo ovviamente per il mondo occidentale, perché in molti altri paesi del mondo le donne sono ancora schiave di una mentalità patriarcale. Pensate alla premio Nobel pakistana Malala Yousafzai, vittima solo del suo desiderio di studiare. Una donna in certi paesi non può coltivarsi, perché la cultura, la conoscenza, ti rendono indipendente e quindi ti rendono scomoda.
In Italia il cammino verso la parità è stato lungo, e anche faticoso, pensiamo che il delitto d’onore è stato abolito soltanto nel 1981. Il nostro viaggio verso un mondo meno androcentrico è lungo. Ma consideriamo che altrove si è purtroppo molto più indietro, per ragioni storiche. La nostra strada verso la modernità è stata costellata da grandi conquiste, spesso non condivise, spesso in contraddizione fra loro ma storicamente innegabili. Per il nostro Paese penso al Rinascimento, al Risorgimento, alla resistenza. La stessa rivoluzione francese, che poi è finita malissimo, ha posto le basi della democrazia come oggi la intendiamo, ruotando tutto su tre valori cardine come libertà, uguaglianza e fraternità. L’altra grande rivoluzione è stata quella di Cristo, che ha avuto il coraggio di contraddire la Bibbia. Ha sostituito la vendetta con la giustizia (“ama il prossimo tuo”), e la schiavitù che era nell’epoca dell’Antico Testamento considerata normale e pacifica con l’ugugaglianza. E cosa che ritengo più importante di tutte ha chiesto di dare a Cesare quel che è di Cesare, cioè di separare la chiesa dallo stato. Al mondo islamico questo è mancato, è mancato qualcuno che storicizzasse il Corano, che è inevitabilmente legato al suo tempo, al settimo secolo d.C. Dove la chiesa ha anche il potere religioso, avvengono le cose peggiori. La chiesa si occupa di assoluto, mentre lo stato deve occuparsi della pluralità, ciò deve mediare tra tanti soggetti e quindi anche tra diverse forme religiose. La grande lotta fra sciiti e sunniti che divide il mondo islamico è appunto la divisione tra chi vuole storicizzare il Corano, leggerlo come un episodio della storia, e quindi in modo critico, e chi come i sunniti ne chiede l’applicazione letterale. We have a historical context the Bible, why do not stone adulterers and do not cut the hand of the thief. The attitude towards women is always a fact of civilization. The power is control, seeks to have absolute dominion over death, and it does so with wars, the courts, the prisons. And it does about life, trying to dominate the women's belly. By imposing their bans, penis, limits.
The last question is for Thomas: Dacia Maraini had close family ties with intellectuals such as Pasolini and Moravia, Today we learn in high school as important voices of the twentieth century. “They were like two intellectuals used to say once engaged – said Dacia Maraini – in the sense that have questioned the reality and have spoken critically, sometimes prophetically. For example, when Pasolini asked to make the process of building, introducing a concept then in common usage, anticipated critical phenomena in power which are then fleshed out with the fight against corruption in the nineties. And it's a good thing that there is talk of corruption phenomena. I think it's healthy, when the complaint emerges and comes to the fore, it would be worse if corruption although this remained unnoticed”. And returning to Pasolini and Moravia, he added: “The intellectual world was fragmented because the ideologies that had once also a function ended “cogent”, allowed to meet to plan the future. So for example, the policy has been reduced to the struggle for the conquest of power, Simple personalism, and he lost that spirit of community service that also was born. There are still strong ideologies, but they are underground – concluded Dacia Maraini – I think for example the phenomenon of volunteering, which it is very common and fortunately also very practiced, but he speaks very little. It is practiced but it is theorized. Hopefully forces like this can one day return to being the forces more complex and systematic project, those forces that lead you to compare yourself with others and to join them to change the world”.